Gastrointestinal

Almost every person in the process of life is facing any abnormalities of the digestive tract. One of them is indigestion – a condition often explained by episodes of diarrhea. But these concepts have different origins.

All cases of indigestion are divided into organic and functional. In the first case, the symptoms are due to a cause that can be identified during the examination. The circumstances of functional disorders remain “unidentified” and are most often associated with an incorrect lifestyle, overeating, and other factors.

Symptoms of upset stomach

In contrast to the symptoms of intestinal distress (diarrhea, flatulence, etc.), functional disruptions in the upper parts of the gastrointestinal tract are manifested by nausea, heartburn, decrease of appetite, discomfort in the upper abdomen, pain.

Causes of a stomach upset

Incorrect food. The most common cause of upset stomach is eating fatty, spicy, fried, and sugary foods, each of which has a negative effect. Sharp and spicy dishes can irritate the gastric mucosa and increase its secretory activity, which is manifested by heartburn, pain in the upper abdomen. Fat and sweet dishes make it difficult for motor skills and can cause slow food movement towards the intestines. As a result, eructation and bloating develop.

Overwork and stress. Functions that perform the entire gastrointestinal tract, directly depend on the state of the nervous system. It regulates the reduction of the walls of the stomach and intestines, the secretion of digestive juices, etc. Deficiency of rest, frequent or chronic stressful conditions, psychoemotional loads can quickly disable the mechanisms of the nervous system responsible for gastrointestinal health. In this case, treatment of a stomach disorder requires a reduction in the level of listed risk factors.

Alcohol and smoking. Alcohol is a strong irritant for the mucous membrane of the walls of the stomach. It disrupts the secretory function and the composition of the digestive juices. Smoking affects the health of the digestive tract in two ways. Saliva, with toxic substances contained in it (the products of tobacco combustion), gets into the stomach and irritating its walls. And nicotine, with its ability to cause spasms of blood vessels, disrupts blood flow to the stomach, causes an inadequate intake of nutrients and oxygen to its tissues. If functional disorders of the digestive tract are observed in a person with bad habits, one of the means of indigestion will be the refusal to smoke and drink alcoholic beverages.

Diseases accompanied by a disorder of the stomach. Obesity and GERD. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), in which the contents of the stomach is thrown back into the esophagus, is often caused by obesity. With excessive body weight, intra-abdominal pressure is often increased, which affects the upper parts of the digestive tract, forcing them to move their food upward.

Diaphragmatic hernia. The diaphragm is a dense septum separating the thoracic and abdominal cavity. Sometimes there is a defect in its structure – hernia, in which the abdominal organs partially move into the thoracic cavity and puts pressure on the stomach, causing a number of symptoms.

Gastritis. Acute inflammation of the mucous membrane of the walls of the stomach can develop as a result of food poisoning or frequent consumption of excessively hot, sharp, etc. dishes. Chronic gastritis in 90% of cases is caused by the Helicobacter pylori bacteria.

Gastric and duodenal ulcers. In addition to Helicobacter pylori, the cause of peptic ulcer disease can be increased secretion of gastric juice, in which the walls of the stomach are irritated with hydrochloric acid, as well as taking a number of drugs. Such tablets as aspirin, diclofenac, and others, can cause ulceration of the mucosa.

Upset stomach during pregnancy

Functional bowel disorder (constipation, diarrhea) and upper GI tract is a common condition in pregnant women. It is due to changes in the hormonal background and a general reorganization of the functions of all systems and organs. Since the second half of the second trimester, this is accompanied by a constantly increasing intra-abdominal pressure, which has a negative effect on the functioning of the digestive tract.

To alleviate the condition with functional disorders, it is possible, taking food often, but in small portions, and also giving up fatty, spicy foods and foods that cause increased gas formation (beans, cabbage, baked goods).

Diagnosis in case of stomach disorders

Inspection. Before treating an upset stomach or intestines, it is necessary to identify the causes of this condition. Diagnosis begins with a visit to a doctor who collects an anamnesis (asking questions about the symptoms and how long they appeared, diet and lifestyle, occupational employment, taking any pills, etc.). All this information helps the doctor to determine the further direction of the diagnosis and to prescribe the correct treatment of an intestinal disorder or disorders of the upper GI tract.

Instrumental research. The means of accurate diagnosis is ultrasound, x-ray. Depending on the patient’s complaints, one of the listed methods may be prescribed, but the most informative is the EGF.

Laboratory research. Studies of blood, urine, and feces can identify the infectious cause of a stomach disorder or diarrhea, and also help detect blood traces. It indicates bleeding in the upper gastrointestinal tract or intestine.

Treatment of indigestion

Change in lifestyle and nature of nutrition, abandonment of bad habits, normalization of the daily routine, physical activity and observance of proper nutrition (eating food 5-6 times a day in small portions and at a certain time, minimizing or completely refusing fried, fatty, spicy dishes), all of that prevent the development of such conditions in the future.

Tablets from a stomach disorder can be designed to neutralize the acidic environment (antacid meds) and create a protective barrier on the surface of the mucosa, preventing its irritation (alginate medicines). If the functional disorder of the upper gastrointestinal tract is accompanied by flatulence, diarrhea, constipation, etc., drugs for intestinal disorders in the form of tablets, suspensions, etc. are prescribed separately.

In violations of the upper parts of the digestive tract and intestine, various mechanisms of occurrence, so drug treatment also differs. The action of tablets from intestinal disorders can be aimed at normalizing motor activity, absorbing nutrients, restoring microflora, etc.

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