Vision is a very important ability of the body. When a person sees well, he can perform a variety of activities, be independent, have the opportunity to work. If the patient has a decrease in visual acuity, then this is fraught with various difficulties in the domestic sphere, as well as physiological problems.
Loss of visual function can be observed in a variety of situations, and often it is associated with eye diseases. The list of pathologies is very large, and the diseases are so diverse that sometimes it is difficult to determine the cause of the eye disease in the patient.
Classification of major pathologies
Each disease has its own symptoms, which allow us to identify the problem in time and start treatment as soon as possible.
All diseases of the eye can be divided into several types:
- diseases of the eyelids and lacrimal canals;
- problems with the cornea, sclera, or iris of the eye;
- pathological changes in the lens area;
- conjunctival diseases;
- dysfunction of the vascular membrane and retina;
- pathology of the muscular apparatus;
The most dangerous are diseases such as glaucoma, cataracts or optic nerve dystrophy.
Diseases of the eyelids and lacrimal ducts
- Blepharitis. The symptomatology of the pathology is expressed in the inflammation of the edge of an eyelid. It is not easy to cope with this problem. Sometimes the disease affects only the cutting edge of the eyelid or only the posterior. As the main symptoms can be identified such as: redness, swelling, skin peeling, sometimes itching, feeling of a foreign object under the eyelid, burning sensation.
- Barley. The pathology is inflammatory, and in consequence, the patient has a serious inflammation of the eyelash hair bag with an accumulation of pus. Most often, the development of infection provokes a virus such as Staphylococcus aureus.
- Dacryocystitis. Can be acute or chronic. It is an inflammation of the lacrimal sac, followed by the release of pus from the damaged eye and increased tear. Most often, the inflammation of the eye bag affects female patients. Diseases can be observed not only in adults but also in newborn children.
All these diseases can be easily eliminated after a thorough examination and a special treatment course.
Problems with the cornea, sclera, or iris of the eye
The list of diseases that cause a decrease in visual acuity include:
- Episcleritis. Acute inflammation of the tissue located between the sclera and conjunctiva. At the initial stage, redness of the eye, in the area of the cornea, is observed. Sometimes there is swelling. In special treatment, the disease does not need and quickly passes.
- Keratitis. This kind of inflammation affects the cornea, as a result of which it becomes turbid. The disease has several degrees of severity. Redness and tearing can be noted.
- Keratoconus. This problem is considered a degenerative pathology of the cornea. As a result, thinning or bulging is observed due to pressure. The cornea can take the form of a cone and affect the acuity and quality of vision.
In addition to these diseases, there are also less common: aniridia, corneal dystrophy (hereditary pathological changes), anisocoria, polycoria.
Pathological changes in the lens and conjunctiva
Several diseases arise as a result of the development of the pathology of the lens or conjunctiva.
- Conjunctivitis. A common and simple enough disease can lead to quite serious consequences. The disease can have a different basis: viral or bacterial, fungal or allergic. As the main signs of pathology, you can call such problems as the appearance of redness, swelling, increased tearing;
- Aphakia or the absence of the lens can develop as a result of the removal of the lens due to cataracts or trauma to the eyeball;
- Cataract or clouding of the lens. Pathology can develop in one or two eyes at once, and can also have an innate or acquired character. The disease causes serious problems with eyesight.
- Bifakia is a pathology, which is characterized by the appearance in the eyeball of the second lens.
Pathological changes in the structure of the eye
Diseases of the eye can have a wide variety of symptoms. The appearance of one or another sign indicates the occurrence of problems with the eyeball or muscle tissue in the eye area.
- Retinopathy. This disease develops as a result of deformation of the retina of the eye. The reason for this is often oxygen starvation, as well as a lack of necessary substances to feed the shell of the body.
- Detachment and degeneration of the retina. The disease is a detachment of the retina from the pigment epithelium. The violation can be classified according to the stage of development.
- Angiopathy of the retina. The problem is associated with a violation of the overall structure of the vessels, as well as the damage to the nerve endings that coordinate their work. Frequent and prolonged increase in blood pressure can change the structural integrity of the walls of blood vessels and lead to changes in the circulatory system.
- Glaucoma. The disease occurs quite often and occurs as a result of increased pressure in the eye area. The main symptoms of glaucoma are severe headaches, which are accompanied by impaired vision.
- Detachment of the vitreous humor. The disease is characterized by the passage of a dense substance from the retina of the eyeball.
- Neuritis. The main cause of this pathology is damage to the optic nerve. As a result of such a violation, the patient develops inflammation, and there are unpleasant sensations, as well as problems with vision.
- Atrophy of the optic nerve. Violation of this kind is associated with a low conductivity of nerve fibers, and also due to the destruction of nerve endings in the eye. Also, damage can provoke the transmission of irritation from the retina to the brain.
Lesions of the muscular apparatus in the eye area
Diseases associated with a malfunction of the muscular apparatus in the eyeball area may also have their own particular signs and nuances. Such problems can be congenital or acquired.
The most known diseases in this situation are:
- Strabismus. Develops as a result of losses due to movement of the eyeball. With such a disease, a very different direction can develop during focus of the eye;
- Nystagmus is a disease in which the function of eye movement is disturbed;
- Hyperopia is the most common problem in which a person does not distinguish between objects that are close to him, but he sees things that are located far away;
- Myopia. The patient can perfectly see things and objects at close range, while distant objects in front of his eyes simply blur;
- Ectropion is the turn of the eyelid, which is most often diagnosed in the lower eyelid. This condition leads to disruption of contact with the eyeball and later is accompanied by problems with the work of the optic nerve. It is only surgical intervention that can save a patient;
- Color blindness – the disease occurs when the color perception of vision changes. In some cases, complete color blindness was diagnosed. The patient could distinguish absolutely no colors, not only in tone but also in brightness.