Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that develops due to an absolute or relative insufficiency of the insulin. It is necessary to bring glucose to the cells of the body, which enters the bloodstream from food and provides tissue with energy. With a lack of insulin or insensitivity to body tissues, the level of glucose in the blood rises – this condition is called hyperglycemia. It is dangerous for almost all body systems.
There are two types of diabetes mellitus, which have significant differences.
Diabetes mellitus type 1 is a condition in which, beta cells of the pancreas die. It is these cells that produce insulin so that their death leads to an absolute deficiency of this hormone. Such diabetes is found in childhood or adolescence more often. The development of the disease is associated with a viral infection, inadequate functioning of the immune system and hereditary causes. But it does not inherit diabetes itself, but the only predisposition to it.
Diabetes mellitus type 2, as a rule, develops after 30-40 years in people who are overweight. In this case, the pancreas produces insulin, but the body cells can not respond to it correctly, their sensitivity to insulin is reduced. Because of this, glucose cannot penetrate into tissues and accumulates in the blood.
Over time, with diabetes of the second type, insulin production may decrease, since the long-existing high level of blood glucose adversely affects the cells that produce it.
There is a simple test that allows you to find out if you have symptoms of diabetes.
- No matter how much I quench my thirst, I can not get drunk in any way.
- I feel uncomfortable when I have to stay out of the house for a long time because of the frequent urge to urinate.
- Dried drops of urine leave dense white spots on the linen, reminiscent of traces of starch.
- I am defeated by weakness and drowsiness.
- I note the deterioration of sight: the contours of objects blur as if I look through the fog.
- Periodically, there is a sensation of crawling, numbness, and tingling in the palms and soles.
- I can not get rid of acne.
- I have very dry skin, badly heal cuts and scratches.
- Itching of the skin, especially in the perineum.
- In recent months, I have thrown (a) 3-5 kg or more, without applying the slightest effort;
- I constantly feel severe hunger.
However, it is important to note that the classic signs of diabetes described here (thirst, dry mouth, itchy skin, increased urine output, weight loss, visual impairment) do not appear at the onset of the disease, but only when insulin deficiency becomes serious.
To be able to start treatment in time, each person after 45 years of age should take an analysis once a year to determine the level of glucose in the blood on an empty stomach. If a person is at risk, this analysis should be performed more often.
Another important analysis is the determination of glycated hemoglobin. It can show what the average blood glucose level was in the last three months.
Causes of diabetes:
- Hereditary predisposition. In a family where the father suffers from type 1 diabetes, the probability of developing the disease in a child is 5-10%. If this type of diabetes is a sick mother, the risk is half less – 2-2,5%. Brother or sister – 5%. When two children are sick, the risk of acquiring diabetes for a third child rises to 10%.
If both parents suffer from type 2 diabetes, the risk of developing the same type of disease in their children after the age of 40 increases to 65-70%.
- Overeating and unbalanced food with an abundance of high-calorie, refined food.
- Sedentary lifestyle.
- Chronic stress.
- Prolonged use of certain drugs (diuretic, hormonal, salicylates, cytostatics, etc.).
With type 1 diabetes, the most important part of therapy is insulin injections, which the patient must do all his life. In recent years, making them more convenient due to the appearance of dispensing syringe pens. Another useful development is insulin pumps of continuous subcutaneous administration, the most modern of which have an alert system for too low or too high a blood glucose level in a patient and can automatically adjust the dose of insulin.
If pancreatic insufficiency is not complete, a patient can use drugs that stimulate the production of insulin in the body.
In type 2 diabetes, prescribe medications that eliminate insulin resistance or immunity to insulin. If the blood glucose exceeds the permissible norm against the background of long-term treatment with the maximum doses of such drugs, the patient should receive replacement therapy with insulin preparations.
To avoid the development of type 2 diabetes, it is important to normalize weight, limit caloric intake, increase motor activity. Such tactics give good results not only in healthy people who have risk factors, but also at the stage of pre-diabetes when the disease has not yet come, but glucose is already poorly absorbed.
If at this time, competently build tactics of behavior, in 50-60% a person can avoid the development of ailment.