Hypertension is one of the most common cardiovascular diseases. Statisticians claim that up to 30% of the adult population suffers from hypertension. With age, the prevalence of the disease grows and reaches 65% in people of retirement age.
A persistent increase in blood pressure can have a variety of causes. The development of hypertension is facilitated by more than 20 combinations in the human genetic code. Primary hypertension is the most common form of hypertension (up to 95%).
The remaining cases of hypertension are called secondary and caused by renal, endocrine, hemodynamic impairments, as well as the result of taking certain medications.
Arterial hypertension develops as a consequence of overstrain of mental activity under the influence of psychoemotional factors. Experts of the World Health Organization identify some risk factors for the onset of hypertension. They include the following:
- age (after age 65, the risk is significantly increased);
- sex (women are sick more often);
- lack of exercise, sedentary lifestyle;
- the use of excess amount of table salt with food;
- alcohol abuse;
- hypocalcemic diet, lack of calcium in water, unbalanced diet;
- smoking, active and passive;
- heredity and other factors.
Treatment of hypertension is based on identifying the main factors contributing to its development.
Syndrome of primary hypertension at the initial stage is often characterized by a fairly long period of labile arterial hypertension, sometimes complicated by hypertensive crises. A person may not feel deterioration of well-being until the beginning of the hypertensive crisis and not suspect about the disease before the diagnosis by the doctor.
The symptoms of hypertension at this stage include:
- cardialgia, pain in the heart;
- general weakness, hypotension;
- sleep disturbances, often caused by increased urine formation during the night.
Unpleasant feelings associated with increased blood pressure: tinnitus, headaches largely coincide with signs of normal fatigue. Most patients do not even think about the indicators of their blood pressure, and also do not imagine the real scale of the danger – the numerous complications of hypertension.
For this ability to mask symptoms under the phenomenon of ordinary fatigue, hypertension was called “invisible killer.”
The following symptoms, noted on a regular basis, refer to manifestations of latent hypertension:
- headaches, especially in the occipital region;
- weak, rapid heartbeat (tachycardia);
- redness of the face, chest;
- feeling of pulsation in the head;
- increased anxiety;
- decreased concentration of attention;
- feeling of inner tension, difficulty in achieving a relaxed state;
- irritability, anger;
- decreased efficiency;
- swelling of the eyelids and face after sleeping;
- swelling of the hands, numbness of the fingers.
Diagnosis and treatment of hypertension should be started immediately, as soon as such symptoms are observed on a regular basis.
The most effective methods of treatment for this condition are those that started as early as possible.
The medical practice uses a huge number of different drugs from high blood pressure. The list of some tablets counts more than one dozen names. They differ not only in price, but also in the mechanism of action, effectiveness, and the presence of side effects.
The main categories of drugs:
- Medicines of the central action
- Angiotensin receptor blockers
- Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors
- Renin inhibitors
- Calcium channel blockers
It should be borne in mind that the treatment of hypertension is a complex process. The patient can not independently analyze all his symptoms and accompanying diseases and choose a suitable medicine for hypertension without side effects. If you find yourself with signs of hypertension, you should consult a specialist.