Antibacterial chemicals were originally called synthetic drugs, which were created artificially, but have similar to antibiotics effects on the inhibition of bacteria.
With the creation of the strongest antibacterial drugs, similar to antibiotics and even superior to them, the concept of antibiotic has expanded and is now used as a synonym for antibacterial drugs, including everything.
It is not right; antibacterial drugs and antibiotics are different things. Antibiotics are only an integral part of antibacterial.
Antibiotics are essential substances that some microorganisms develop against others to destroy them. Originally it is a natural substance.
Antibacterial drugs include antibiotics, antiseptics, antimicrobial and antibacterial. Their purpose is the destruction of pathogenic microorganisms (microbes).
Viruses and prions can develop only in living host cells. That’s why antibiotics cannot treat viruses. They can only be affected by antiviral drugs and some antiseptics. In turn, antiviral drugs are useless for bacterial infection.
Antiseptics act on all microorganisms, but only apply externally. They include iodine, alcohol, potassium permanganate and disinfect wounds and prevent decomposition processes.
Antimicrobial agents are possible to apply both externally and internally (orally, injectively, etc.). These include sulfanilamides.
Antibiotics are the narrower group of drugs effective against bacteria and protozoa (e.g., malarial plasmodium, chlamydia, etc.). They divide into antibacterial and antiprotozoal medicines.
All antibacterial drugs include 6 groups:
- Quinolones are antibacterial agents and fluoroquinolones that used successfully in various systemic infectious pathologies.
- Fluoroquinolones have a wide range of action. They are not classic antibiotics, although they are close to them by action. But they have a different origin and structure. There are two generations of these drugs. Some of them are included in the List of JVL: Ciprofloxacin, Levofloxacin, Moxifloxacin, Lomefloxacin, Ofloxacin.
- Nitrofurans are also not antibiotic agents, but they have a bacteriostatic effect. They are used for the treatment of chlamydia, trichomonads, lamblia, some gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. In high doses, they are bactericidal. Resistance to them develops rarely.
- Sulfanilamides have a bacteriostatic effect; They are not antibiotics but often prescribed to enhance their action.
- Oxyquinolines are inhibitors of gram-negative bacteria, suppressing the activity of their enzymes. Applied to intestinal and renal infections.
- Hinoxalins are bactericidal substances with poorly studied effects.
The classification of the chemical structure used now looks like this:
- Beta-lactam antibiotics; they combine three subgroups – penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems.
- Macrolides are a large group of antibiotic-bacteriostatics; The safest regarding side effects.
- Tetracyclines are also bacteriostatics; Uses to treat anthrax, tularemia, cholera, brucellosis.
- Aminoglycosides have bactericidal properties. Assign for sepsis, peritonitis. Highly toxic.
- Levomycetins are bacteriostatics; They are toxic to the bone marrow, so they are used in a limited way.
- Glycopeptide antibiotics are bactericidal; It is the cocci only act bacteriostatically.
- Lincosamides are bacteriostatics in a therapeutic dose. In high doses show a bactericidal effect.
- Anti-TB drugs are effective with a stick of Koch.
- Antibiotics of different groups like Fuzidin-sodium, Polymyxin, Gramicidin, Rifamycin, etc. They are infrequently used, so they remain effective in treating intestinal infections, throat infections, etc.
- Antifungal antibiotics by the spectrum of action are close to fungi; they destroy the membrane of fungal cells. They do not act on other pathogens.
- Anti-leprosy drugs are rarely used, only for the treatment of leprosy.
Antibiotics are available in tablets, ampoules, ointments, sprays, drops, candles and syrup. Syrups are generally prescribed for small children. Methods of administration: oral; injection; local.
Local application can be external, intranasal, intravaginal, rectal. Injectable forms are used for infections with the moderate and severe course. In these cases, the antibiotic enters the blood quickly, bypassing the gastrointestinal tract.
All details are agreed by the doctor and do not depend on the patient’s awareness.
The uncontrolled use of antibiotics led today to the fact that often they are ineffective. It is because bacteria become resistant to these drugs.
Therefore, it is necessary to identify the type of pathogen and the sensitivity of the pathogen to the antibiotic.