- hypersensitivity to the drug;
- deficiency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase;
- embrionous colitis;
- children’s age to 18 years (until the completion of the process of skeleton formation);
- lactation period (breastfeeding);
- increased sensitivity to ciprofloxacin or other drugs from the group of fluoroquinolones.
With caution should prescribe the drug with severe atherosclerosis of cerebral vessels, disorders of cerebral circulation, mental illness, convulsive syndrome, epilepsy, severe renal and/or liver failure, elderly patients.
Due to a decrease in the activity of microsomal oxidation in hepatocytes, ciprofloxacin increases the concentration and prolongs the half-life of theophylline and other xanthines (e.g., caffeine), oral hypoglycemic drugs, indirect anticoagulants, and decreases the prothrombin index.
When used simultaneously with NSAIDs (with the exception of acetylsalicylic acid), the risk of seizures increases.
Metoclopramide accelerates the absorption of ciprofloxacin, which leads to a decrease in the time to reach the maximum concentration of the latter.
Joint appointment of uricosuric drugs leads to a delay in excretion (up to 50%) and an increase in the plasma concentration of ciprofloxacin.
When combined with other antimicrobial agents (beta-lactam antibiotics, aminoglycosides, clindamycin, metronidazole), synergy is usually observed. Therefore, ciprofloxacin can be successfully used in combination with azlocillin and ceftazidime in infections caused by Pseudomonas spp .; with mezlocillin, azlocillin and other beta-lactam antibiotics – with streptococcal infections; with isoxazole penicillins and vancomycin – with staphylococcal infections; with metronidazole and clindamycin – with anaerobic infections.
Ciprofloxacin increases the nephrotoxic effect of cyclosporine, there is also an increase in serum creatinine, so these patients need to monitor this indicator two times a week.
With simultaneous administration of ciprofloxacin increases the effect of indirect anticoagulants.